Posts Tagged ‘yeast’

Using Yeast for Gluten-free Bread

January 27th, 2018
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The texture and flavor of standard bread is the target of gluten-avoiders. Obtaining these taste and texture is as essential for free-from products as it is for any other type of bread.  To achieve this, using yeast is necessary.

Yeasts are single-celled fungi that convert carbohydrates into carbon dioxide and alcohols during fermentation, the process that transforms dough. These microorganisms allow dough to grow and form the bubbles that will give the finished product its airy texture.

For thousands of years, yeasts have been used in baking and producing alcoholic beverages like beer and wine, as consumers love the taste specific to fermented products in baked goods.

Specialists from Lallemand Inc. explained that all types of baker’s yeast can be used for gluten-free products as in standard bread – fresh cream yeast, fresh compressed yeast or instant dried yeast. All of these yeasts have specific properties and the manufacturer has to choose the best match to for its baking requirements. For example, dried yeast needs a hydration step before it can be used in dough preparation. “As with all bakery products, the amount of yeast used is determined by the dough recipe and the process used. However, in free-from products, the quantity of yeast is usually greater than that necessary for standard bread products”, according to Mike Chell from Lalemand.

What does yeast do?

During the fermentation process, yeast eats sugar (carbohydrate) to produce carbon dioxide gas, fermentation and flavor components. Yeast may produce many secondary metabolites such as ketones, higher alcohols, organic acids, aldehydes and esters. Some of these, alcohols for example, escape during baking.

These stages apply to gluten-free products: the yeast still requires a carbohydrate source, which is obtained from glucose/dextrose or sugar. Producers have refined manufacturing methods, but all of these will include a proofing stage for the yeast to become active.

More than yeast

Production processes differ for the two end product categories of standard bread and gluten-free bread. Starches or flours transform into gelatin during baking to provide bread structure and texture. However, the basic components of gluten-free bread recipes are a gluten-free starch source, like tapioca, potato, rice or maize. In this case, stabilizing and gelling agents can be used as alternatives to balance the lack of gluten. Hydrocolloids such as xanthan gum, guar gum, HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, a natural multifunctional carbohydrate polymer used as gelling agent), cellulose and egg albumen can all be used as stabilizing agents. In this case, hydrocolloids will provide the viscoelastic and gas-retaining properties found in wheat flour dough and functional proteins such as egg albumin will contribute to stabilizing the structure.

Aside from these ingredients, producing the perfect bread always starts with good flour and yeast.

Source: World Bakers


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Research: Baking with Sourdough

January 13th, 2018
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Sourdough and sour cultures have been used as part of food manufacturing since Ancient Egyptian times. Sourdough was used to give bread flavor and add volume to the loaves being baked. Modern research also suggests that sourdough could also remove mycotoxins from affected wheat.

By Nathan Giles, Senior Bakery Technologist, Campden BRI

Modern day fermentation for bread is achieved by bakery yeast otherwise known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is a single celled organism with a semi-permeable membrane which allows nutrients into the cell which are then turned into carbon dioxide and alcohol. Sourdough however uses bacterial fermentation rather than yeast fermentation, with the dominant strains of bacteria being Lactobacilli. Sourdough fermentation produces a greater amount of lactic acid (between 4 and 10g/kg) and acetic acid (between 0.5 and 2g/kg) than that of fermentation by baker’s yeast (0.1g/kg both lactic and acetic acid). This creates an acidic flavor to the bread and helps with shelf life.

Starter Culture

The traditional method for creating a sourdough starter is achieved by mixing together equal quantities of flour and water. The mixture is then left to open to the bakery environment in order to allow the mixture to start the fermentation process. At low temperatures (20-25°C), the lactic acid bacteria grow faster than the yeast and this is what helps to give the sourdough the acidic properties (Gelinas, 2006). To be able to achieve a balanced stable starter, it must be refreshed with flour and water in equal parts. Feeding the culture with flour and water replenishes any nutrients which have been used by bacteria in the process of establishing a colony. A stable balanced culture can be achieved in approximately five days.

Types of Sourdough

Sourdough can be categorized into three types:

Type I: These sourdoughs are produced using traditional techniques and are refreshed daily to keep the micro-organisms in an active state.

Type II: These are sourdoughs which are often used as dough-souring supplements during bread preparation. They are semi-fluid and the silo preparation is characterized by long fermentation periods (2-5 days) with a temperature sometimes greater than 30°C to speed up the process.

Type III: These sourdoughs are dried preparations containing lactic acid bacteria which are resistant to the drying process.

Types II and III require the addition of baker’s yeast (S. cerevisiae) as a leavening agent as these are usually added to the dough to increase shelf life of the product and to add a depth of flavor or texture.

When a product is fermented, the yeast or the sourdough are the biological leavening agents. When yeast ferments, it produces carbon dioxide which enters the pre-existing bubbles in the dough created during the mixing process. Yeast does not create new bubbles in a dough system; therefore, air must be incorporated during the mixing to provide pre-existing bubbles Wieser (2003). The gas cells in the dough become larger as more gas is produced and growth of gas cells changes from slow to rapid after around 25 minutes of fermentation.

Source: World Bakers


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Why Isn’t Bread Alcoholic?

August 26th, 2017
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If beer and bread use almost the exact same ingredients (minus hops) why isn’t bread alcoholic? originally appeared on Quora: the place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people to learn from others and better understand the world.

Answer by Josh Velson, part data scientist, part chemical engineer, on Quora:

All yeast breads contain some amount of alcohol. Have you ever smelled a rising loaf of bread, or better yet smelled the air underneath dough that has been covered while rising? It smells really boozy. And that sweet smell that fresh baked bread has under the yeast and nutty Maillard reaction notes? Alcohol.

However, during the baking process, most of the alcohol in the dough evaporates into the atmosphere. This is basically the same thing that happens to much of the water in the dough as well. And it has long been known that bread contains residual alcohol, up to 1.9% of it. In the 1920s, the American Chemical Society even had a set of experimenters report on it: The Alcohol Content of Bread.

Anecdotally, I’ve also accidentally made really boozy bread by letting a white bread dough rise for too long. The end result was that not enough of the alcohol boiled off, and the darned thing tasted like alcohol. You can also taste alcohol in the doughy bits of under-baked white bread, which I categorically do not recommend you try making.

Putting on my industrial biochemistry hat here, many of the answers here claim that alcohol is only the product of a “starvation process” on yeast once they run out of oxygen. That’s wrong.

The most common brewers and bread yeasts, of the Saccharomyces genus (and some of the Brettanomyces genus, also used to produce beer), will produce alcohol in both a beer wort and in bread dough immediately regardless of aeration. This is actually a surprising result, as it runs counter to what is most efficient for the cell (and, incidentally, the simplistic version of yeast biology that is often taught to homebrewers). The expectation would be that the cell would perform aerobic respiration (full conversion of sugar and oxygen to carbon dioxide and water) until oxygen runs out, and only then revert to alcoholic fermentation, which runs without oxygen but produces less energy.

Instead, if a Saccharomyces yeast finds itself in a high sugar environment, regardless of the presence of air it will start producing ethanol, shunting sugar into the anaerobic respiration pathway while still running the aerobic process in parallel. This phenomenon is known as the Crabtree effect, and is speculated to be an adaptation to suppress competing organisms in the high-sugar environment because ethanol has antiseptic properties that yeasts are tolerant to but competitors are not. It’s a quirk of Saccharomyces biology that you basically only learn about if you spent a long time doing way too much yeast cell culture… like me.

Source: Forbes


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Orkla licences acrylamide-reducing yeast

June 3rd, 2017
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Orkla Food Ingredients has signed a licence agreement with Renaissance BioScience to exclusively produce and sell Renaissance acrylamide-reducing yeast to food manufacturers in the European Nordic and Baltic markets.

“Renaissance’s acrylamide-reducing yeast has shown promising results in baked goods trials, and Orkla is pleased to be working with Renaissance to make this valuable advance in food safety available to food manufacturers,” said Thore Svensson, Senior Vice President at Orkla Food Ingredients.

“Orkla is the market leader in the Nordics and Baltics, and we’re pleased to be working with a partner that sees the importance of reducing acrylamide in the food supply,” said Dr. Cormac O’Cleirigh, Chief Business Development Officer at Renaissance BioScience.

“This is a key region for the introduction of our acrylamide-reducing yeast, given that it is where the presence of acrylamide has the highest level of consumer awareness.”Renaissance’s acrylamide-reducing yeast is said to have shown promising results in large-scale industrial trials in baked goods and snack foods, as well as in lab scale tests in fries and coffee.

The yeast was granted GRAS status by the U.S. FDA in 2016 — the same status as conventional baker’s and brewer’s yeasts. It is patent pending and was developed using classical non-GMO techniques. Renaissance is currently working with Orkla on final product development and commercial rollout.




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Lesaffre acquires Sensient yeast extract business

January 14th, 2017
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Lesaffre acquires Sensient’s Strasbourg yeast extract food business in order to widen its range of yeast extracts products

Lesaffre has acquired Sensient Technologies’ Strasbourg, France-based yeast extract food business and processing plant. Terms of the transaction were not announced.

As part of its ongoing expansion strategy in nutrition and health, Lesaffre, a global key player in the yeasts and fermentation industry announces the acquisition of Sensient‘s Strasbourg yeast extract food business and yeast extract facility.

Sensient’s facility produces and sells brewer’s yeast extracts and yeast cell walls in particular for the human savory and animal feed industries. This operation, based at the Port Autonome de Strasbourg, was part of the Sensient Technologies group, a global producer of flavors, colors and fragrances.

This acquisition is completely in line with Lesaffre’s development strategy in the field of Nutrition and Health. Lesaffre will give a new impetus to the Strasbourg production unit by providing it with the industrial and financial resources for new developments.

“This acquisition will strengthen our presence in the growing markets of brewer’s and baker’s yeast extracts and will provide a solid addition to the Lesaffre range. We are excited about this growth in our business which underlines our commitment to meeting our customer needs” said Antoine Baule, CEO of Lesaffre.

Renamed Lesaffre Culinary Strasbourg, this operation employs 72 persons.

Source: Lesaffre




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U.S. FDA no questions regarding Renaissance BioScience Corp.’s Non-GMO Acrylamide-Reducing Yeast

May 28th, 2016
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Renaissance BioScience Corp. announces U.S. FDA acceptance of GRAS notification for Non-GMO Acrylamide-Reducing Yeast

Renaissance BioScience Corp., a leading global yeast innovation company, is pleased to announce that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has “no questions” in regards to Renaissance’s Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) notice (GRAS Notice No. GRN 000604) for its non-GMO, acrylamide-reducing (AR) baker’s yeast strain.

“The acceptance of our acrylamide-reducing yeast as GRAS by the U.S. FDA is a significant step forward in the commercialization and marketing of the AR yeast for a wide variety of food and beverage sectors,” said Dr. John Husnik, CEO of Renaissance BioScience. “GRAS status provides further validation to food manufacturers worldwide to apply our innovative AR yeast to address the acrylamide problem that continues to be a concern in many foods and beverages. In foods that already contain yeast we believe our AR yeast can quickly and seamlessly replace the use of conventional baker’s yeast, with minimal or no change to the food production process, thereby reducing the amount of acrylamide in the final consumer product by up to 90%. For foods that do not traditionally contain yeast it is also possible to significantly reduce acrylamide levels using our AR yeast by making reasonable process alterations, as our laboratory results have shown.”

“With government reports concerning acrylamide being issued recently by the U.S. FDA, the EFSA, the U.K. FSA, Health Canada and the Japanese government, acrylamide reduction continues to be an important focus for health and food safety regulators, governments, and food and beverage manufacturers around the world ,” added Dr. Husnik.

Renaissance’s AR yeast now joins other mainstream ingredients, such as conventional baker’s yeast and other food and beverage yeasts, that have GRAS status. The company’s wholly owned subsidiary, Renaissance Ingredients Inc., is responsible for commercializing the AR yeast to the global food and beverage industry.

“Recognizing that food safety regulators have requested lowering acrylamide levels to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA), Renaissance Ingredients Inc. is pleased to have completed another step in the process to make our AR yeast commercially available as a safe and effective new tool for food manufacturers to lower acrylamide levels,” commented Renaissance Ingredients Inc.’s President Dr. Matthew Dahabieh.  Renaissance Ingredients Inc. is currently in discussions with potential production partners to allow for large-scale commercial availability of AR yeast for food manufacturers.

Source: Asia Food Journal


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Puratos Acquires Italian Natural Yeast Food Specialist, Bakery Future Lines

May 1st, 2015
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Puratos, leading innovator in the bakery, patisserie, and chocolate industry, has recently acquired BFL (Bakery Future Lines), an Italian family-owned company based in La Spezia (Liguria), active in B2B production of ingredients for bakers and specialized in innovating natural yeast and sourdough products.
Puratos plans to expand BFL facilities and its workforce in order to double current production output and satisfy growing consumer demand for healthy bakery products that use ingredients such as sourdough.
“Recent consumer surveys have shown a clear interest in more natural bakery goods, with sourdough being particularly popular”,says Daniel Malcorps, Chief Executive Officer of Puratos. “With BFL’s long-standing reputation as one of the primary providers of natural yeast products and mixes, Puratos intends to further satiate consumer appetite for natural products. BFL’s specialty sweet bread products such as panettone, colomba and pandoro, head the list of what we believe will be in high demand.”
“In the last 20 years, sourdough and natural yeast products have become popular again, mainly due to changes in perceptions relating to diet and increased levels of health consciousness” says Stefan Cappelle, Business Unit Director Bakery Flavours and Yeast of Puratos. “Puratos’ strong commitment to growth together with BFL’s specialized baked goods knowledge and its planned expansion will enable us to continue to revolutionize and innovate natural yeast and sourdough products and match the demands of both customers and consumers.”
Until today, all the sourdoughs used by Puratos started as liquid sourdough. This gives them organoleptic properties that are very well adapted for application in crusty breads such as baguettes and ciabattas. The resulting flavour profiles contain fruity and fermented notes with some noticeable mild acidity, which improves the crustiness of the final product.
BFL’s process focuses on a sourdough with a different and specific consistency that produces other benefits, the most important of which is improved texture and palatability in sweet products such as traditional panettone.  This kind of sourdough is also used in products such as brioches and croissants.
Through a specially-designed drying process, BFL made it possible to conserve all the benefits of traditional sourdough in a powdered form, resulting in a sourdough that is more cost effective and has considerably longer shelf life. The Puratos R&D expertise and Innovation Center are at the service of local customers.
Recent consumer surveys have shown a clear interest in more natural bakery goods, with sourdough being particularly popular.

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Yeast, the final frontier

September 20th, 2014
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yeastUBC researcher is sending yeast to the International Space Station to learn about genetics and the environment

Every brewmaster and baker knows that yeast rises. But, as UBC associate professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences Corey Nislow will tell you, some yeast rises way, way above the rest.

This month, special yeast strains developed by Nislow’s team will dock at the International Space Station, shuttled there by SpaceX, the private spacecraft company contracted by NASA to deliver cargo. Once aboard the ISS, astronauts will follow Nislow’s instructions to perform experiments on how microgravity affects gene expression, the process in which the genetic code directs protein synthesis.

“Yeast are the simplest model organisms with cells like ours that you can do useful experiments on,” explains Nislow, who, with his wife and colleague Professor Guri Giaever, relocated his lab from the University of Toronto to UBC in January 2013.

“Despite a million years of evolution, they retain enough features that are in common with human cells.”

2014: A yeast odyssey

Nislow has collaborated with the University of Colorado Boulder’s BioServe Space Technologies and Duke Veterans Affairs Medical Center to perform a series of NASA-funded experiments aboard the ISS, and will be sending his yeast on every even-numbered SpaceX flight through 2015.

Despite the sci-fi aura, the results of these experiments have important real-world applications. The 6,000 strains of yeast used by Nislow and his team each have a single, deleted gene. By examining how microgravity affects the different strains of yeast, they hope to pinpoint exactly which genes are being affected, and how.

We know the cellular consequences of those altered genes on earth,” says Nislow. “Now we’re asking: When you’re in microgravity, what changes?”

Having already sent two yeast experiments into space with NASA, Nislow has confirmed that cells in space experience DNA damage as a result of cosmic radiation—a discovery that has applications well beyond space travel.

“One of the things that a cell does is generate very reactive molecules. That’s just part of your metabolism,” he explains. “We know in space that the amount and type of reactive oxygen produced is different than it is on earth, and we already know that tumours have a different spectrum of reactive oxygen species. We’re hoping to find parallels between those two.”

Ready for blast-off

Nislow’s space experiments started three years ago, when he was approached by Duke University VA to contribute an experiment that could be sent up on NASA’s final Atlantis shuttle launch on July 8, 2011. While that date may have marked the end of NASA’s shuttle program, it was the beginning of Nislow’s forays to the final frontier.

“The actual launch just blew my mind,” he enthuses. “When you’re standing there watching the shuttle take off and thinking, ‘This is going into outer space,’ you instantly become 12 years old again.”

Source: University of British Columbia


Research, Technology

Lallemand Launches Aromatic Yeast for Baked Goods

September 13th, 2014
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With limited fermentation activity, Lallemand’s Florapan yeast is perfect for pizza dough and bakery products with unique flavor profiles.

Bakers that want to stand out from the crowd and offer more savory products now have new options: Lallemand Baking Solutions has launched a range of natural aromatic Florapan yeast. Carefully selected from Lallemand’s best brewers and oenological yeast strains, Florapan yeasts produce a generous bouquet of fruit and floral aromas. With limited fermentation activity, they are perfect for pizza dough and bakery products with unique flavor profiles.

Bread and bakery products are an essential part of the Europeans diet. Nevertheless, a large proportion of consumers (43% in Spain, 40% in Italy, 35% in France, 32% in Germany and 28% in England) would like a wider range of flavors in BVP products (Mintel, 2012).

Always ahead of the curve, Lallemand has developed a new range of aromatic yeasts, the Florapan products. These strains of yeast produce aromatic compounds such as ethyl hexanoate (apple, banana), ethyl octanoate (pineapple, pear) and ethyl decanoate (hazelnut, floral) which are also found in wine. The odor detection thresholds of ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate and ethyl decanoate are respectively, 0.001, 0.01 and 0.51 mg/kg. According to our analysis, significant amounts of these esters are present in sourdoughs fermented for 24 hours with Florapan aromatic yeasts:

  • Florapan A16, producing 166 mg/kg of ethyl hexanoate, 94 mg/kg of ethyl octanoate and 64 mg/kg of ethyl decanoate. Its slow fermentation capability, especially at low temperatures, makes it ideal for refrigerated pizza dough.
  • Florapan A17, producing 152 mg/kg of ethyl hexanoate, 120 mg/kg of ethyl octanoate, and 83 mg/kg of ethyl decanoate, provides fruity aromas particularly valuable in sourdough.
  • Florapan A18, producing 83 mg/kg of ethyl hexanoate, 37 mg/kg of ethyl octanoate, and 41 mg /kg of ethyl decanoate, provides exotic and buttery flavors that can support the unique flavor profile of certain bakery products.

To guarantee the aromatic contribution of Florapan aromatic yeasts in the final product, after baking, they should be used in the preferment or with an extended proof time. In pizza dough, they can be used for both their leavening and flavoring properties. They can also be used in the production of sourdough bread as their addition to the sourdough increases the development of aroma without adding bakers yeast to the final dough.


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Lallemand Yeast Gets EU Marketing Authorization

July 12th, 2014
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efsa-logoFollowing EFSA’s earlier positive recommendation, the European Commission has granted marketing authorisation for Lallemand Inc.’s Vitamin D baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). This development helps make bread and other yeast-leavened bakery products to become even healthier foods for European consumers by being new daily sources of vitamin D when baked with Lallemand’s VitaD baker’s yeast.

The major source of vitamin D is exposure to sunlight. But now, world populations are living indoor lifestyles and increasingly uses sunscreens when outside. Therefore, it is becoming more important to acquire vitamin D through dietary sources.

But there are only a few natural food sources of vitamin D, which explains why at least one third of the world’s population is deficient in vitamin D. In Europe, EFSA estimates that a large percentage of the population does not meet the recommended daily allowances of 10?g/day. In 2012, the mean percentile intake of vitamin D from foods among young children varied from 1.7 to 5.6 ?g/day, and from 1.6 to 4.0 ?g/day in adolescents. For adults, estimates of vitamin D mean intake from foods varied from 1.1 to 8.2 ?g/day.

EFSA has approved a number of health claims for vitamin D, which are only granted to nutrients following a rigorous evaluation process. These health claims are related to the importance of vitamin D to the normal absorption of calcium and to the maintenance of healthy bones and teeth, but also include the recent discovery of the crucial importance of vitamin D to the function of the IMMUNE system.

According to an Angus Reid survey conducted in 2012 for Lallemand in nine countries across Europe, a large proportion of European consumers (84%) believe that vitamin D plays a great role in maintaining or improving their health. This survey also offers an interesting new peek into European consumers’ views on vitamin D:

  • The most common health benefits European consumers’ associate with vitamin D are protection against osteoporosis and fracture risk (48%), followed by cardiovascular disease (20%) and influenza (20%).
  • Food sources European consumers associated with Vitamin D: Cod liver oil (41%), followed by salmon (38%) and milk (34%).

“Since many Europeans are not meeting their needs for vitamin D and new dietary sources are needed, the European Commission’s approval now gives the baking industry a unique opportunity to offer a solution to enhance the healthy attributes of bread, benefiting from the growing consumer awareness of the importance of vitamin D to the maintenance of the immune system and bone health, as recognized by EFSA,” Gert Steenkamp, President and General Manager of Lallemand Yeast Group (EMEA Division), commented.

Source: Asia Food Journal


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