A study in the Journal of Food Process Engineering looked at the foaming abilities of nine kinds of surfactants in cocoa butter.
Su-Jia et al showed that only phospholipids had foaming ability in cocoa butter, and the higher content of phosphatidylcholine in phospholipids, the stronger its foaming ability in the cocoa butter. These results are significant for seeking a new method to prepare aerated chocolate.
The authors also looked at the foaming mechanism of phospholipids in cocoa butter. The foaming mechanism of phospholipids in cocoa butter was different from its foaming mechanism in the water. The possible reason was that the molecular layers of phospholipid liquid crystalline were formed in the interface of air/cocoa butter, which could maintain the stability of the bubbles in cocoa butter. At the same time, it was found that the foaming ability of phospholipids in cocoa butter was related with temperature. The spherical bubbles with large diameter and thin wall were easily formed at higher temperature (37C). At the low temperature (30C), the bubbles were also spherical, but with small diameter and thick wall. The small and irregular bubbles were easily formed at the lower temperature (the cocoa butter was partially crystallised at the temperature 26C). The results show a new train of thought and basic data for the preparation of the aerated chocolate.
Source: Confectionery Production